|چکیده انگلیسی||Economic Inequality and Infant, Under-5-Year-Old, Maternal, and Crude Mortality Rates
Amir Almasi Hashiani 1 ; Erfan Ayubi 2 ; Noushin Fahimfar 2 ; Ahmad Khosravi 3 ; Nahid Karamzad 4 ; and Saeid Safiri 5, *
1 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Health, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, IR Iran
2 Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Center for Health-Related Social and Behavioral Sciences Research, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, IR Iran
4 Nutrition Research Center, Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IR Iran
5 Department of Public Health, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, IR Iran
Background: Mortality indices are among the most important health indicators in every country. On the other hand, mortality has an unequal distribution in different socioeconomic levels.
Objectives: We sought to evaluate the association between economic inequality and infant, under-5-year-old, maternal, and crude mortality rates in the world.
Patients and Methods: In this ecological study, data on 196 countries were obtained from the World Bank to assess the relation between economic inequality and mortality in 2013. Per capita gross domestic product (GDP), gross national income (GNI), out-of-pocket index, and per capita health expenditure were extracted as economic variables. Data analysis was performed using STATA, version 12.
Results: The results showed that poorer countries had higher rates of infant, under-5-year-old, and maternal mortality. Among the economic indicators, per capita health expenditure, per capita GDP, and GNI had an important role in creating disparities, whereas the out-of-pocket index had no impact.
Conclusions: Per capita GDP, GNI, and per capita health expenditure played a significant role in creating disparities. Since per capita GDP and GNI are less variable, an increase in health expenditure can reduce inequality in mortality rates.
Keywords: Socioeconomic Factors; Infant Mortality; Maternal Mortality; Child Mortality|